This article discusses some of the many ways in which thermostats are wired into domestic central heating systems.
<cautionary statements about mains voltages etc>
What does a thermostat actually do?
A thermostat is a temperature controlled switch. Typically used to turn on the heating, and keep it running until the room reaches a preset temperature. Once it is warm enough, the stat switches off. When the room cools slightly it switches back on, and thus runs the heating periodically to maintain the set temperature. The temperature setting is usually user adjustable.
Do I need one
Yes, all central heating systems need one. If you don't have one, there is no way to turn the heating completely off once the desired temperature is reached, or to control room temp accurately. (the building regs refer to this as a "boiler interlock").
Some heating systems use more than one room stat. This allows independant control of differeent areas of the property.
But I have Thermostatic Radiator Valves, do I still need a stat?
Yes, even with TRVs the stat is needed to stop the boiler from running where there is no need for it to do so. Also TRVs are generally only partially thermostatic, so don't maintain as even a temp as a proper stat.
How many should I have
Central Heating: Most domestic CH systems have one room thermostat.
- Large houses sometimes have the heating split into zones, each of which requires its own room thermostat.
- If your gas or oil heating system also stores hot water, the hot water cylinder needs a cylinder stat. These typically have wide hysteresis and no compenation heater. Many are strapped onto the outside of the cylinder
- Electric stored hot water usually uses an immersion heater with the thermostat built into it
- Most solar hot water systems use a differential stat to run the solar system pump when the panel is hotter than the stored hot water
The boiler itself has a thermostat to control the primary circuit temperature.
- Old boilers use a user adjustable bimetal stat mounted on the boiler
- Modern boilers tend to monitor primary circuit temp electronically, and sometimes adjust it to maximise efficiency
- Weather compensation schemes choose the primary circuit set temp based on outdoor temp
Systems fitted with Under Floor Heating may have additional room stats to control the UFH heating zones. Wet UFH also uses a thermostat to control the UFH loop water temp, which must be kept well below primary circuit temp. Electric UFH uses a thermostat to limit its temp.
Solid fuel boilers typically use a primary circuit that turns on a radiator when it gets too hot, to prevent the system boiling.
Types of thermostat
- Central heating normally uses either a bimetal stat (with compensation) or a programmable electronic stat.
- Refrigeration uses a capillary stat
- Frost free freezers and fridge freezers mostly use a few electronic stats
- Plugin heaters that have a stat generally use a non-compensated bimetal stat
- Small appliances with a thermostat usually use an uncompensated bimetal stat
Bimetal or mechanical stats use a bimetallic element (2 sheets of different metals bonded together) that bends with temperature change. This operates a switch.
Being mechanical they are pretty reliable long term, and easy to understand. They typically control the temperature to an accuracy of half a degree. They lack the extra features of electronic programmable stats, such as ability to lock the temp control, and change temp settings through the day.
Compensation or acceleration
Mechanical CH stats include a tiny compensation heater (a small resistor eating less than a watt) that comes on when the stat switches "on," heating the thermostat very slightly. The purpose of this is to reduce the hysteresis of the bimetal stat, which without compensation is around 3 degrees C.
This resistor requires a neutral connection to work; without this connection the room temperature would swing up and down by a few degrees, which is not satisfactory.
(It is possible to miswire a bimetal stat so that the compensator is on at the wrong times. If this happens, a wide range between switch on and switch off temps will be seen)
Mechanical stats are usually designed for operation in mains voltage control systems. The 240v compensation resistor won't work on a lower voltage.
Bimetal stats are dial adjusted. Good stats have plenty of turn per degree C, making adjustment easy. Less good stats can be a mildly fiddly to adjust by a small amount.
Electronic thermostats use a thermistor sensor plus some electronics. These can maintain a slightly closer temperature control, to within a quarter to half a degree C.
Rather than employing a rotary knob and temperature control, they usually have a LCD readout.
The main advantage of many electronic stats is that they're programmable. The preset temp can be set to automatically switch to different levels at specific times of the day. Programmable stats can in effect act as programmers as well as stats. (on combi boiler systems where there is no need for a cylinder stat, then the system programmer can be dispensed with altogether)
The downsides of electronic thermostats are:
- less long term reliability
- cease working when the battery runs out
- can be frustratingly complex to operate
- a battery leak can kill them
- greater cost than bimetals
The advantages are:
- settings can be locked
- can act as controller as well as thermostat
- can set different temps at different times of the day
- can maintain slightly closer control of temperature, reducing fuel use by a very small amount
Wireless or wired
Wireless thermostats avoid the need to run a mains wire to the stat, and are battery powered. They can be moved from one room to another. They stop working when the batteries run flat.
These are stats which once preset, can't easily be altered by casual users.
- Many programmable stats can be "locked" to achieve this
- Tamperproof bimetal stats have the control knob accessed after removing screws
Fridges and freezers mostly use a capillary stat for control. These consist of a
- metal bulb of a material that expands with temperature
- a very thin capillary tube that connects this to...
- a bimetal stat with user setpoint adjustment
The purpose of these is to enable the user control to be in a separate position to the sensing element.
Capillary stats were also used in early central heating systems, which are now long obsolete.
Some thermostats have 1 pole 1 way switching. These switch on when heat is needed, and off when not. These can't therefore control air conditioning for example (i.e. turn something "on" when the room is warmer than a preset temperature)
Two way switching stats, switch either on or off as temp rises, depending on where you connect the wires. Thus they can control heating or cooling equipment.
Frost protection is a 5 degree C setting designed to avoid pipes freezing. Many bimetal stats can be turned down to 5C rather than switching the system totally off. Electronic stats normally incorporate frost protection.
Aux switching and contacts
Some stats have additional contacts available for switching extra equipment along with the heating.
Proportional / Modulating stats
These are more sophisticated stats that are able to either report the actual temperature back to the boiler, or indicate the amount of heating required. These are often bespoke items that need matching to specific boilers that understand how to use this type of stat, and are often included in "weather compensating" thermostats. This can allow for more efficent operation of a boiler by adjusting the flow temperature of the boiler water to match the actual needs. Hence the heatin will run hotter on cold days, rather than just longer.
These are programmable stats that will attempt to more accurately meet the changing temperature demands of the stat as it switches to each new temperature setting throughout the day. To do this they can turn the heating on before the demanded time to ensure that the temperature requested is met at the start of the time.
Hence if you say have the heating set to tick over at 15 degrees over night, but then want it to be 21 degrees between 7 and 9am. Assuming it is not particularly cold over night, a non optimising stat will wait until 7am before calling for heat. This may mean the desired temperature is not actually reached until sometime after 7am. The optimising stat however will turn the heating on some time before 7 to endure it is already 21 degrees by the time 7am arrives.
Some optimising stats will attempt to automatically learn the response of the house, others may need to be set manually to adjust for the typical lag of the building.
Optimising stats are used in large commercial premises.
What does the thermostat control
Depending on the type of stat, and the type of zoning used, the stat may connect to one of more of the boiler, a zone valve, and a pump.
On a typical single zone domestic system, the wire the stat switches power to fires up the boiler and switches on the pump. The zone valve is controlled by the controller.
How should I wire it
Type of cable
Fixed house wiring should be implemented in flat T&E cable:
- 1mm2 3&E is the best option. It provides a neutral, enabling all the main types of stats to be used
- 1mm2 T&E can be used when no neutral is needed, but it does makes it impossible to change to a more reliable bimetal stat
- Larger cable is also fine, and 2x T&E can be used if no 3&E is in stock.
Earthing or lack of
Earthing of the stat is usually needed where metal parts are touchable. No earth connection is required for double insulated stats. This is typical for battery operated programmable stats. (If an earth wire is present simply sleeve it and "park" it in a spare unused terminal). Note is it not acceptable to re-purpose an unused earth wire for some other purpose!
What to do with spare neutrals
If neutral is not needed (ie with battery powered electronic stats), it is simply not connected. Put the stray wire end into a lone screw connector to stop it touching things it shouldn't.
Some stats that don't need a neutral have a parking position for a neutral wire. This can be used instead of the above. If your stat doesn't have this, don't connect N to an unused connector position unless it is specifically marked for the purpse, or spitzensparken and fusenpoppen may result, and this may kill the thermostat's relay.
What else can I control with a thermostat
- Switching electric space heating directly - but thermostat current rating is often limited
- Controlling winemaking heaters, yogurt heaters, propagators etc
- Cooling equipment
- over temperature alarms
- freezer failure alarm
- frost protection heater